By the time Katrina began lashing New Orleans in the early hours of Monday, Aug. 29, some 2,000 people were bunking in the hospital, including more than 200 patients and 600 workers. [68], The first deaths reported from the city were reported shortly before midnight on August 28, as three nursing home patients died during an evacuation to Baton Rouge, most likely from dehydration. [103], The influence of blacks in the city receded politically, too: in 2010 New Orleans elected its first white mayor in 32 years, a white majority (5-2) took control of the City Council, which had previously been black, and a white police chief and district attorney were elected. Exposé sur le thème de lâ Ouragan Katrina » Exposé sur le thème de la Chirurgie Esthétique by cachoublue. Many roads and buildings were damaged by Hurricane Katrina. [81] As a result of the flooding, Kentucky Governor Ernie Fletcher declared three counties disaster areas and a statewide state of emergency. Six other former or current officers appeared in court in June 2011. On August 27, it moved its personnel out of the New Orleans region prior to the mandatory evacuation. An estimated 215 bodies were found in nursing homes and hospitals in New Orleans,[69] the largest number being at Memorial Medical Center where 45 corpses were recovered. of Housing and Urban Development, in St. Bernard Parish, 81% (20,229) of the housing units were damaged. [59], In addition, the combined effect of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita was the destruction of an estimated 562 square kilometres (217 sq mi) of coastal wetlands in Louisiana.[60]. [90] Overall, about 20% of the local marshes were permanently overrun by water as a result of the storm. After briefly weakening to tropical storm strength over southern Florida, Katrina emerged into the Gulf of Mexico on August 26 and began to rapidly intensify. Rebuilding meant piles of paperwork in a mountain of bureaucracy. L’ouragan Katrina, de la saison cyclonique 2005 dans l'océan Atlantique nord, est l'un des ouragans les plus puissants de l'histoire des États-Unis et l'un des six ouragans les plus forts jamais enregistrés. Its SATERN network of amateur radio operators picked up where modern communications left off to help locate more than 25,000 survivors. [10] Este sistema alcanzó el estatus de tormenta tropical en la mañana del 24 de agosto, momento en el cual recibió el nombre de Katrina. [86] The prisoners feared for their lives during these encounters with the guards. Immediately after Katrina, WWL-AM was one of the few area radio stations in the area remaining on the air. [47] The storm surge also devastated the coasts of Mississippi and Alabama, making Katrina one of the most destructive hurricanes, the costliest natural disaster in the history of the United States, tied with Hurricane Harvey in 2017,[1] and the deadliest hurricane since the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane. US Navy 050905-N-0535P-014 U.S. Navy search and rescue swimmer, Aviation Warfare Systems Operator 1st Class Tim Hawkins, retrieves and evacuates a victim of Hurricane Katrina from a rooftop in New Orleans into an SH-60B Seahawk.jpg 1,500 × 2,100; 456 KB The fact that Katrina occurred at the end of the month before pay checks were in the hands of many was also significant. On August 30, Louisiana Governor Kathleen Blanco ordered the complete evacuation of the remaining people that sought shelter in the Superdome. Some spills were only a few hundred gallons and most were contained on-site, though some oil entered the ecosystem and residential areas. The first surge came as Lake Pontchartrain rose and the storm blew water from the Gulf of Mexico into the lake. [102] It is estimated that if New Orleans was to restore 1,700 square miles (4,400 km2) of wetland lost before 2005, the natural capital would be worth an estimated $6 billion/year, or $200 billion at the present value. The facility was run on backup generators and outdated fingerprinting methods were used, which added to the confusion of the facility. He called the governors of Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi to warn them of the severity of the coming storm. Chapter 1 in, Westbrook, Robby; WFO Peachtree City Staff. The George R. Brown Convention Center and the Reliant Center and Reliant Arena nearby were all opened to house additional evacuees. "[60] At the time of the hurricane, approximately 3,000 members of the Guard were serving a tour of duty in Iraq. Fish and Wildlife Service Conducting Initial Damage Assessments to Wildlife and National Wildlife Refuges", "Delayed Tree Mortality and Chinese Tallow Explosion in Louisiana Bottomland Hardwood Forest Following Hurricane Katrina", "Rita's Aftermath; Katrina Takes a Toll on Truth, News Accuracy", "Amid Katrina Chaos, Congressman Used National Guard to Visit Home", "Ex-cop gets 8 years for role in post-Katrina shootings", "At the Train Station, New Orleans' Newest Jail is Open For Business", "Some Katrina Evacuees at Camp Dawson Have Criminal Records", "A Tale of Three Cities: Crime and Displacement after Hurricane Katrina", "New Orleans gang wars spill into Houston area", "The Federal Response to Hurricane Katrina: Lessons Learned", United States Government Accountability Office, "USCG Message Traffic: Award of the Presidential Unit Citation to the Coast Guard", Special Defense Department Briefing with Commander of Joint Task Force Katrina, Bush Discusses Displaced Students; Department of Defense Briefs Press on Katrina Response (CNN Live Transcript), Pelosi: Davis Report on Katrina Leaves Unfinished Business, Congress Approves $51.8 Billion For Victims, President Asks Bush and Clinton to Assist in Hurricane Relief, "Proclamation by the President: Honoring the Memory of the Victims of Hurricane Katrina", "Hancock Co. woman struggles to get out of FEMA trailer", "Law Officers, Overwhelmed, Are Quitting the Force", "Six Months After Katrina: Who Was Left Behind Then and Who is Being Left Behind Now? [136] Three days after the recall, Michael D. Brown resigned as director of FEMA in spite of having received recent praise from President Bush. Four of these were from natural causes, one was the result of a drug overdose, and one was a suicide. In addition, the eastbound span of the I-10 bridge over the Pascagoula River estuary was damaged. The situation inside the building was described as chaotic; reports of rampant drug use, fights, rapes, and filthy living conditions were widespread. Vigdor, Jacob, "The Economic Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina," 'The Journal of Economic Perspectives' 22 (2008): 135–138. [48] One apartment complex with approximately thirty residents seeking shelter inside collapsed. Although Hurricane Katrina made landfall well to the west, Alabama and the Florida Panhandle were both affected by tropical-storm force winds and a storm surge varying from 12 to 16 feet (3.7–4.9 m) around Mobile Bay,[10] with higher waves on top. However, as of September 2006, the unemployment rates have never fallen below the national average, indicating improvement. [8] An ABC News poll conducted on September 2, 2005, showed more blame was being directed at state and local governments (75%) than at the Federal government (67%), with 44% blaming Bush's leadership directly. "[105] African-Americans "are more segregated than any other racial/ethnic group in the United States, and racial segregation is associated with poorer quality housing and neighborhoods that have limited resources to enhance health and well-being. The remnants of Katrina brought 3 to 6 in (76 to 152 mm) of rain to portions of Massachusetts, causing flash flooding in Bristol and Plymouth counties. Most evacuees had stayed within 250 miles (400 km), but 240,000 households went to Houston and other cities over 250 miles (400 km) away and another 60,000 households went over 750 miles (1,200 km) away. Les ouragans se forme au desus des océan pendant l'été et tot automne quand l'eau chaud et du l'air humide se mélange. After this deadline, evacuees were still eligible to receive federal assistance, which could be used towards either apartment rent, additional hotel stays, or fixing their ruined homes, although FEMA no longer paid for hotels directly. Insulation tubes were exposed as the hotel's glass exterior was completely sheared off. Much of this information was relayed from trapped victims via the SMS functions of their cell phones, to friends and relatives outside the area, who then relayed the information back to La Nouvelle - Orléans est la plus grande ville de l'État de la Louisiane , aux États Unis . [8] Hurricane Georges in September 1998 galvanized some scientists, engineers and politicians into collective planning, with Scientific American declaring that "New Orleans is a disaster waiting to happen" in October 2001. [103] They based this on statistics showing that black residents of New Orleans are more likely to be unemployed than when the storm hit, and are also more likely to be living in poverty. 2005: Hurricane Katrina hits New Orleans Hurricane Katrina is pummelling New Orleans with howling gusts and blinding rain, after sweeping ashore over the southern Louisiana coast. In addition, approximately 4,000 people lost electricity. These earnings were oftentimes very inconsistent, in turn causing these low wages. Voorbeeld zinnen met "Ouragan Katrina", vertaalgeheugen. In addition to the fatality caused by the F2 tornado, there was another fatality in a traffic accident.[79]. African-Americans, however, "had approximately two-fold greater odds of screening positive for PTSD" after Hurricane Katrina than whites. Katrina caused eleven tornadoes in Mississippi on August 29, some of which damaged trees and power lines. Throughout the Florida Panhandle, the storm resulted in an estimated $100 million in damage. Environ 1 836 personnes sont mortes, victimes de l'ouragan et des très fortes inondations, faisant de Katrina l'ouragan le plus meurtrier depuis Mitch en 1998. Many agencies responded with manpower and equipment from as far away as California, Michigan, Nevada, New York, and Texas. Découvrez les ravages de l'ouragan Katrina lors d'une visite guidée qui vous emmènera dans les quartiers de la Nouvelle-Orléans qui ont été touchés, comme Ninth Ward, Lakeview, Gentilly et St Bernard. On August 29, at about 7:30 a.m. CDT, it was reported that most of the windows on the north side of the Hyatt Regency New Orleans had been blown out, and many other high rise buildings nearby also had extensive window damage. It was also forecast that the storm surge in Lake Pontchartrain would reach 14–18 feet (4.3–5.5 m), with waves reaching 7 feet (2 m) above the storm surge. "The New Orleans Hurricane Protection System: What Went Wrong and Why". [107] Additionally, there were reports of carjacking, murders, thefts, and rapes in New Orleans. Despite this, a number of residents defied the eviction order. [74] Reasons for arriving included being sent to the convention center from the overwhelmed Superdome, being dropped off there by rescuers, or hearing about the convention center as a shelter via word of mouth. These newcomers have had the effect of driving up housing prices, making rent less affordable for the majority of black residents. Ten years after Hurricane Katrina's massive devastation, Congress approved $14 billion for a 350-mile ring of protection around New Orleans with a promise to build bigger and stronger levees. ", "Kanye West's Torrent of Criticism, Live on NBC", "Ex-FEMA Chief Tells of Frustration and Chaos", "President Arrives in Alabama, Briefed on Hurricane Katrina", Poll: Bush Not Taking Brunt of Katrina Criticism, Poll: Most Americans believe New Orleans will never recover, Venezuela and Cuba offer aid to Katrina victims, From abroad, offers of aid for Katrina victims, France, Cuba, Venezuela among those offering aid, "Scoop: Further NZ assistance in wake of Hurricane Katrina", U.S. Hurricane Katrina first made landfall between Hallandale Beach and Aventura, Florida on August 25. Katrina is the costliest tropical cyclone on record, tying with Hurricane Harvey in 2017. Others (like the Industrial Canal) collapsed after a brief period of overtopping caused “scouring” or erosion of the earthen levee walls. A number of streets and bridges were washed away. [73], On August 29, as people were being turned away at the Superdome and rescues continued, rescuers began dropping people off at the Convention Center, which, at 8 feet (2 m) above sea level, easily escaped the flood. Over the first week of September, law and order were gradually restored to the city. Pfeiffer of the NOPD was quoted as saying, "It was supposed to be a bus stop where they dropped people off for transportation. Most buildings held up well structurally. Failures occurred in New Orleans and surrounding communities, especially St. Bernard Parish. [165] On April 5, 2006, months after independent investigators had demonstrated that levee failures were not caused by natural forces beyond intended design strength, Lieutenant General Carl Strock, Chief of Engineers and Commander of the Corps of Engineers, testified before the United States Senate Subcommittee on Energy and Water that "We have now concluded we had problems with the design of the structure. Hurricane Katrina was a large Category 5 Atlantic hurricane which caused over 1,800 deaths and $125 billion in damage in August 2005, particularly in the city of New Orleans and the surrounding areas. [87] After the flood waters receded, many of the inmates of Orleans Parish Prison served longer sentences due to the lack of government in New Orleans. To the north in Broward County, residents east of the Intracoastal Waterway or in mobile homes were advised to leave their homes. New Orleans was settled on a natural high ground along the Mississippi River. St. Tammany Parish received a two-part storm surge. Lance Hill of Tulane University said: "The perception among most African-Americans is that they are living politically as a defeated group in their own city. Reports from the Methodist Hospital indicated that people were dying of dehydration and exhaustion while the staff worked constantly in horrendous conditions. [citation needed] By September 1, the Astrodome was declared full and could not accept any more evacuees. Katrina damaged or destroyed 30 oil platforms and caused the closure of nine refineries;[48] the total shut-in oil production from the Gulf of Mexico in the six-month period following Katrina was approximately 24% of the annual production and the shut-in gas production for the same period was about 18%. [38] This scenario was considered a potential catastrophe because some parts of New Orleans and the metro area are below sea level. [49], Some initial reports of crime and mass chaos, particularly in stories about the Superdome, were later found to be exaggerated or rumors. [130], Law enforcement and public safety agencies, from across the United States, provided a "mutual aid" response to Louisiana and New Orleans in the weeks following the disaster. No checking for weapons was done among the crowd as was done at the Superdome, and a large store of alcohol kept at the Convention Center was looted. One example was the effort of, the web affiliate of New Orleans' Times-Picayune. La catégorie 5 est la plus grande qu’une ouragan peut être. [128] Many local areas voted to not allow the trailers, and many areas had no utilities, a requirement prior to placing the trailers. Hurricane Katrina was a large Category 5 Atlantic hurricane which caused over 1,800 deaths and $125 billion in damage in August 2005, particularly in the city of New Orleans and the surrounding areas. [12] Katrina maintained strength well into Mississippi, finally losing hurricane strength more than 150 miles (240 km) inland near Meridian, Mississippi. [158] In Hancock County, Mississippi, ham radio operators provided the only communications into or out of the area and even served as 911 dispatchers. Face à l'ampleur de la catastrophe, les secours se mettent lentement en place. [28] Officials closed the Miami International Airport,[29] Fort Lauderdale–Hollywood International Airport, Key West International Airport, and Florida Keys Marathon Airport due to the storm. Multiple investigations in the aftermath of the storm concluded that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which had designed and built the region's levees decades earlier, was responsible for the failure of the flood-control systems,[6] though federal courts later ruled that the Corps could not be held financially liable because of sovereign immunity in the Flood Control Act of 1928. Under passagen af den centrale del af den Mexicanske Golf blev orkanen … [100] The US Geological Survey has estimated 217 sq mi (560 km2) of land was transformed to water by the hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Damage in South Florida was estimated at $523 million, mostly as a result of crop damage. About 80 percent of the city—mostly neighborhoods more than tourist areas and the business district—was suddenly underwater. Two deaths occurred due to a flood-related automobile accident in Huron County. More specifically, the criticism focused on the delayed response to the flooding of New Orleans, and the subsequent state of chaos in the city. Reports of gangs roving the city shooting police officers and survivors were also false, as only one policeman was shot in the aftermath of Katrina and no indictments were brought forward against the supposed gang members. According to Cuban television reports the coastal town of Surgidero de Batabanó was 90% underwater. [25] Broadcasting and publishing on the Internet became an important means of distributing information to evacuees and the rest of the world, with news networks citing blogs like Interdictor and Gulfsails for reports of what was happening in the city. [90], The damage from Katrina forced the closure of 16 National Wildlife Refuges. [63] The station's bus terminals were converted into chain-link prison cells that could hold up to fifteen prisoners each. Cruise ships altered their paths due to seaports in southeastern Florida closing. Orkanen Katrina er orkanen, der fra den 23. [citation needed]. Additionally, hundreds of homes and businesses suffered flood damage. Hurricane Katrina was one of the deadliest hurricanes to ever strike the United States and the second Category 5 hurricane of the record-breaking 2005 Atlantic hurricane season.The storm formed over the Bahamas on August 23, where it moved west and hit south Florida as a Category 1 hurricane two days later. Most of the city's major roads were damaged. [34] Many private caregiving facilities that relied on bus companies and ambulance services for evacuation were unable to evacuate their charges because they waited too long. [66], As one of the largest structures in the city, evacuees were brought to the Superdome to wait out the storm or to await further evacuation. The only sector to truly thrive after landfall was construction, which was in high demand to make needed repairs and rebuild destroyed homes. Reports suggest that the theme park will be demolished in the following years.[32]. Many people in the Superdome were bussed to Reliant Park in Houston, Texas. Charity Hospital had most of its windows blown out and suffered damages to lights and ceiling tiles as a result of the strong winds caused by Katrina. [84] The order was given not only as an attempt to restore law and order but also out of concern about the hazardous living conditions in the city. [4] Eventually, 80% of the city, as well as large tracts of neighboring parishes, were inundated for weeks. Hurricane Katrina New Orleans, Bourbon Street Before Storm. In that event, the wind was predicted to come from the north as the storm passed, forcing large volumes of water from Lake Pontchartrain against the levees and possibly into the city. [16] "On Sunday, August 28, President Bush spoke with Governor Blanco to encourage her to order a mandatory evacuation of New Orleans. Aircrews, many of whom lost their homes during the hurricane, began a round-the-clock rescue effort in New Orleans, and along the Mississippi and Alabama coastlines. The Bush Administration sought $105 billion for repairs and reconstruction in the region,[88] which did not account for damage to the economy caused by potential interruption of the oil supply, destruction of the Gulf Coast's highway infrastructure, and exports of commodities such as grain. Multiple children's hospitals around the United States including Arkansas Children's Hospital, Texas Children's Hospital, Children's of Alabama, Le Bonheur Children's Hospital, Cook Children's Medical Center, and Children's Mercy Kansas City sent helicopters, fixed wing aircraft, ambulances, and personnel to Tulane Medical Center, Ochsner, and CHNOLA in order to help evacuate pediatric patients from the hospital.[93][94][95]. Katrina also caused a number of power outages in many areas, with over 100,000 customers affected in Tennessee, primarily in the Memphis and Nashville areas. [10], The United States Coast Guard began pre-positioning resources in a ring around the expected impact zone and activated more than 400 reservists. Captain M.A. [68], Despite increasingly squalid conditions, the population inside continued to grow. Hurricane Katrina, which hit New Orleans, Louisiana, in August of 2005, was a Category 5 hurricane that only worsened when the city's levees failed. [88], There was a concern that the prolonged flooding would lead to an outbreak of health problems for those who remained in the city. A June 2007 report by the American Society of Civil Engineers indicated that two-thirds of the flooding was caused by the multiple failures of the city's floodwalls. Katrina then … Farther south in the Florida Keys, a tornado was spawned in Marathon on August 26. Other large Jackson County neighborhoods such as Porteaux Bay and Gulf Hills were severely damaged with large portions being completely destroyed, and St. Martin was hard hit; Ocean Springs, Moss Point, Gautier and Escatawpa also suffered major surge damage. "Rapid Population Estimate Project: January 28–29, 2006 Survey Report", Growth states: Arizona overtakes Nevada: Texas adds most people overall; Louisiana population declines nearly 5%, "44 oil spills found in southeast Louisiana", "Daupin Island – Pre- and Post-Storm 3D Topography", "Before and After Photo Comparisons: Chandeleur Islands", "USGS Reports Latest Land Change Estimates for Louisiana Coast", USGS National Wetlands Research Center, Oct 3, 2006, "U.S. [10] The surge caused significant flooding several miles inland along Mobile Bay. [150], Russia's initial offer of two jets was declined by the U.S. State Department but accepted later. In a number of cases, reporters were asked to brief public officials on the conditions in areas where information was not reaching them any other way. Visit BBC News for up-to-the-minute news, breaking news, video, audio and feature stories. The Red Cross also had its Disaster Health services meet 596,810 contacts, and Disaster Mental Health services met 826,590 contacts. [163], In the year following Katrina's strike on the Gulf Coast, The Salvation Army allocated donations of more than $365 million to serve more than 1.7 million people in nearly every state. An offshore oil rig also became grounded on the island. La plupart des experts s’accordent à penser que Katrina sera la plus coûteuse catastrophe naturelle de l’histoire des États-Unis. [124] This was refused by Governor Blanco who indicated that her National Guard could manage. [9] However, even the most insistent calls from officials to evacuate ahead of Katrina did not warn that the levees could breach.[10]. 29 août 2005. The storm brought 3 to 5 in (76 to 127 mm) of precipitation to isolated areas of Maine and up to 9 in (230 mm) near Patten. [61] However, both the White House and the Pentagon argued that the depletion of personnel and equipment did not impact the ability of the Guard to perform its mission—rather, impassable roads and flooded areas were the major factors impeding the Guardsmen from securing the situation in New Orleans. Katrina has also stimulated significant research in the academic community into urban planning, real estate finance, and economic issues in the wake of a natural disaster.[6]. [10] The hurricane subsequently weakened due to another eyewall replacement cycle, and Katrina made its second landfall at 1110 UTC on August 29, as a Category 3 hurricane with sustained winds of 125 mph (205 km/h), near Buras-Triumph, Louisiana. Vendredi soir, le sentiment général était, en effet, que le pouvoir fédéral à Washington n'avait pas réellement pris jusque-là la mesure du drame. [92], Hospital evacuations continued from other area hospitals that were flooded or damaged. [164], According to a modeling exercise conducted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), two-thirds of the deaths in Greater New Orleans were due to levee and flood wall failure. Furthermore, it was concluded that women who are most vulnerable to disaster may be more vulnerable to poor pregnancy outcome. However, even though there were thousands of people who were evacuating at the center, along with network newscasters, pleading desperately for help on CNN, FOX, and other broadcast outlets, FEMA head Michael Brown and Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff both claimed that they had no knowledge of the usage of the Convention Center as a shelter until the afternoon of September 1.[78]. [31] They were then transported to the Astrodome in Houston, Texas. [44], There were reports of snipers taking potshots at rescue helicopters; these were false. Camp Greyhound was a temporary prison that housed more than 200 suspected looters in New Orleans until they could be transferred to other institutions. The disaster had major implications for a large segment of the population, economy, and politics of the entire United States. [76] Katrina traveled up the entire state; as a result, all 82 counties in Mississippi were declared disaster areas for federal assistance, 47 for full assistance. [8] Katrina was the earliest 11th named storm on record before being surpassed by Tropical Storm Kyle on August 14, 2020. Découvrez les traces des inondations et les digues endommagées en écoutant les commentaires instructifs de votre guide expérimenté. Louisiane a ou la plus de dommage dans tout la Ouragan. Last year, there were 9.5 million visitors. However, minimal impact was reported, with only "fresh breezes" on various islands. Inmates who were not able to be easily rescued were left in the prison. On August 29, at 7:40 am CDT, it was reported that most of the windows on the north side of the Hyatt Regency New Orleans had been blown out, and many other high rise buildings had extensive window damage. At the Convention Center, four bodies were recovered. Before Hurricane Katrina, the murder rate in New Orleans was ten times higher than the U.S. average. Announcers continued to broadcast from improvised studio facilities after the storm damaged their main studios. For example, by 2006 the decreased biomass in bottomland hardwood forests contributed an amount of carbon which equated to roughly 140% of the net annual U.S. carbon sink in forest trees. De nombreuses rues se trouvent sous les eaux et plusieurs foyers privés d’électricité mercredi à La Nouvelle-Orléans. Based on these reports, government officials expected hundreds of dead to be found in the Superdome, but instead found only six dead: four natural deaths, one drug overdose, and one suicide. All three coastal counties of the state were severely affected by the storm. He issued a special warning to Mayor Ray Nagin, telling him that some levees in the greater New Orleans area could be overtopped. [13] Aircrews from the Aviation Training Center, in Mobile, staged rescue aircraft from Texas to Florida. [179] In the wake of these online-only efforts, the Pulitzer Committee for the first time opened all its categories to online entries. For example, during A Concert for Hurricane Relief, a benefit concert for victims of the hurricane, rapper Kanye West veered off script and harshly criticized the government's response to the crisis, stating that "George Bush doesn't care about black people. [24] Clean water was unavailable, and power outages lasted for weeks. The remnants of Katrina produced locally heavy precipitation in northeast Ohio, ranging from about 2 to 4 in (51 to 102 mm). Consulté le 18 septembre 2011 "[52] Also, one-third of New Orleans police officers deserted the city in the days before the storm, many of them escaping in their department-owned patrol cars. These reasons were complicated by the fact that an evacuation the previous year for Hurricane Ivan had resulted in gridlocked traffic for six to ten hours. Coordination of rescue efforts in the aftermath of Katrina was difficult because of the disruption of the communications infrastructure. The city has 600 more restaurants than 10 years ago. Later that day, area affiliates of local television station WDSU reported New Orleans was experiencing widespread flooding due to breaches of several Army Corps-built levees, was without power, and experienced several instances of catastrophic damage in residential and business areas.

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